Peter Kuma
Science and Software


Southern Ocean Cloud and Aerosol data: a compilation of measurements from the 2018 Southern Ocean Ross Sea Marine Ecosystems and Environment voyage Open access

Stefanie Kremser1, Mike Harvey2, Peter Kuma3, 11, Sean Hartery3, Alexia Saint-Macary2, 10, John McGregor2, Alex Schuddeboom3, Marc von Hobe5, Sinikka T. Lennartz6, Alex Geddes4, Richard Querel4, Adrian McDonald3, Maija Peltola7, Karine Sellegri7, Israel Silber9, Cliff S. Law2, 10, Connor J. Flynn8, Andrew Marriner2, Thomas C. J. Hill12, Paul J. DeMott12, Carson C. Hume12, Graeme Plank3, Geoffrey Graham3, Simon Parsons3

1Bodeker Scientific, Alexandra, New Zealand
2National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington, New Zealand
3University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
4National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Lauder, New Zealand
5Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-7), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany
6Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany
7Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, LaMP, Clermont-Ferrand, France
8School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
9Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
10Department of Marine Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
11Peter Kuma Software & Science, Christchurch, New Zealand
12Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA


Due to its remote location and extreme weather conditions, atmospheric in situ measurements are rare in the Southern Ocean. As a result, aerosol–cloud interactions in this region are poorly understood and remain a major source of uncertainty in climate models. This, in turn, contributes substantially to persistent biases in climate model simulations such as the well-known positive shortwave radiation bias at the surface, as well as biases in numerical weather prediction models and reanalyses. It has been shown in previous studies that in situ and ground-based remote sensing measurements across the Southern Ocean are critical for complementing satellite data sets due to the importance of boundary layer and low-level cloud processes. These processes are poorly sampled by satellite-based measurements and are often obscured by multiple overlying cloud layers. Satellite measurements also do not constrain the aerosol–cloud processes very well with imprecise estimation of cloud condensation nuclei. In this work, we present a comprehensive set of ship-based aerosol and meteorological observations collected on the 6-week Southern Ocean Ross Sea Marine Ecosystem and Environment voyage (TAN1802) voyage of RV Tangaroa across the Southern Ocean, from Wellington, New Zealand, to the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The voyage was carried out from 8 February to 21 March 2018. Many distinct, but contemporaneous, data sets were collected throughout the voyage. The compiled data sets include measurements from a range of instruments, such as (i) meteorological conditions at the sea surface and profile measurements; (ii) the size and concentration of particles; (iii) trace gases dissolved in the ocean surface such as dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide; (iv) and remotely sensed observations of low clouds. Here, we describe the voyage, the instruments, and data processing, and provide a brief overview of some of the data products available. We encourage the scientific community to use these measurements for further analysis and model evaluation studies, in particular, for studies of Southern Ocean clouds, aerosol, and their interaction. The data sets presented in this study are publicly available at (Kremser et al., 2020).
Earth System Science Data
30 October 2020
31 May 2021
02 July 2021
Open access / Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
BibTeX: @article{kremser2021,
  journal={Earth System Science Data},
  author={Kremser, Stefanie and Harvey, Mike and Kuma, Peter and Hartery, Sean and Saint-Macary, Alexia and McGregor, John and Schuddeboom, Alex and von Hobe, Marc and Lennartz, Sinikka T. and Geddes, Alex and Querel, Richard and McDonald, Adrian and Peltola, Maija and Sellegri, Karine and Silber, Israel and Law, Cliff S. and Flynn, Connor J. and Marriner, Andrew and Hill, Thomas C. J. and DeMott, Paul J. and Hume, Carson C. and Plank, Graeme and Graham, Geoffrey and Parsons, Simon},
  title={Southern Ocean Cloud and Aerosol data: a compilation of measurements from the 2018 Southern Ocean Ross Sea Marine Ecosystems and Environment voyage}